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Maxillofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation Using Extraoral Implants

Leonardi, Alessandra MD; Buonaccorsi, Sara MD; Pellacchia, Valentina MD; Moricca, Luca Maria MD; Indrizzi, Elena MDS; Fini, Giuseppina PhD

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: March 2008 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 398-405
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318163e443
Original Articles

The prosthetic rehabilitation is a surgical alternative in functional-aesthetic facial reconstruction when the conventional reconstructive surgery cannot be applied either because of the psychophysical conditions of the patient or because of an excessive substance loss. From May 2002, 35 facial prosthesis (111 implants) have been positioned. Defects were congenital (N = 12), consequent to trauma (N = 8) and to demolitive surgery for malignant tumors (N= 8), and infection (N = 7). In 4 patients, implants were placed in previously irradiated areas. A total of 111 titanium implants were placed to support 21 auricular prostheses (bilateral in 2 cases), 4 orbital prostheses, 8 nasal prostheses, and 2 complex midfacial prostheses. Implant failure was observed for 2 of the 3 implants placed to support a nasal epithesis in a patient with hepatitis C virus, with an important parodontal disease, who experienced a postinfective necrosis of the nose after a liver transplantation; it was necessary to place an adhesive prosthesis. An implant failure was also observed in a diabetic patient with an extensive midfacial defects due to a mycotic infection, but it did not compromise the retention of the prosthesis. According to our experience, the indication to epithesis is when the conventional reconstructive interventions is inapplicable.

From the II Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome "La Sapienza" Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Via di Grottarossa, Rome, Italy.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Alessandra Leonardi, MD, Via Cavalier d'Arpino 1, Roma 00197, Italy; E-mail:

© 2008 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.