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Telecanthus and Hypertelorism in Frontoethmoidal Meningoencephaloceles and the Surgical Correction of These Conditions: Part I. An Orbital Anthropomorphometric Evaluation of the Khmer Subpopulation of Cambodia

Pinzer, Thomas MD*; Gollogly, Jim MD; Krishnan, Kartik G. MD*; Schackert, Gabriele MD, PhD*; Lauer, Günter MD, DD, PhD

The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: January 2008 - Volume 19 - Issue 1 - p 137-147
doi: 10.1097/scs.0b013e318052fe7a
Clinical Notes

This is the first of the two parts of a paper concerning a novel method on the surgical treatment of orbital dysmorphisms, especially telecanthus (TC) and hypertelorism (HT). The normal orbital values of a given ethnic group is an essential factor in determining the degree of correction intended in that patient population. We did not find any data related to the normal orbital values in Khmer-Cambodians in whom we performed the corrective surgeries. Thus, the aims of this article are to evaluate the orbital morphometric data procured in Khmer-Cambodians and to analyze the contradictory definitions of TC and HT found in the literature. We measured the inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, and interpupillary distance in 688 Khmer-Cambodians. The measured normal values are presented and compared with other Asian populations. We discovered that the Khmer-Cambodian orbital morphometry did not resemble the general conception of an Asian appearance, but rather showed a similarity to values found in Indians. Telecanthus and hypertelorism are frequent orbital dysmorphisms that, however, find conflicting definitions in the literature. By means of a short literature review, we have attempted to reorganize the multiplicity of definitions in orbital measurements, as well as clarify the confusing terminology used in TC and HT.

From the Departments of *Neurological Surgery and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Germany; and Children's Surgical Centre, Kien Khleang, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Thomas Pinzer, MD, Department of Neurological Surgery, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany; E-mail:

Supported by Médicins du Monde, Germany.

© 2008 Mutaz B. Habal, MD