Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis with micrognathia is a rare congenital condition that is difficult to treat and may result in recurrence. In a series of affected patients, we compared two new methods of treatment: transport distraction osteogenesis and Matthews Device arthroplasty. All patients had computed tomography scan documented bilateral TMJ bony ankylosis. Group I (transport distraction osteogenesis) underwent distraction advancement of the mandible (for micrognathia) followed by resection of the condyles, recontouring of the glenoid fossas with interposition temporoparietal-fascial flaps, and transport distraction osteogenesis of mandibular rami segments. Group II (Matthews Device arthroplasty) underwent all of the above procedures except for transport distraction osteogenesis. Instead, the Matthews Devices were anchored to the temporal bone and mandibular rami. Hinged arms allowed for motion at the reconstructed TMJ. In both groups, patients underwent extensive postoperative therapy. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up lateral cephalograms were obtained, and incisor opening distances were recorded. All patients but one had severe micrognathia (n = 9). For group I (transport distraction osteogenesis), mean age was 6.8 years. and mean advancement was 28.5 mm. For group II (Matthews Device arthroplasty) mean age was 8.2 years, and mean advancement was 23.5 mm. In group I (transport distraction osteogenesis), mean incisor opening was 1 mm preoperatively and 27.5 mm postoperatively; however, it relapsed to 14.3 mm by 12.5 months follow-up (48% relapse). Mean incisor opening in group II (Matthews Device arthroplasty) was 3.9 mm preoperatively and 33.4 mm postoperatively and remained at 30.6 mm after 11.1 months follow-up (8% relapse). One patient in group I (transport distraction osteogenesis) underwent surgical revision because of relapse. Our data showed that for congenital TMJ bony ankylosis both transport distraction osteogenesis and Matthews Device arthroplasty techniques were successful initially; however, the Matthews Device arthroplasty avoided long-term relapse.