Original ArticlesLeFort III Advancement with and without Osteogenesis DistractionIannetti, Giorgio, PhD*; Fadda, Teresa, MD*; Agrillo, Alessandro, MD*; Poladas, Giulio, MD*; Iannetti, G., PhD†; Filiaci, Fabio, MD*Author Information From the *Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and the †University of Rome "La Sapienza," Italy Rome, Italy Address correspondence and reprint requests to Giorgio Iannetti, PhD, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: May 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 - p 536-543 Buy SDC Abstract The LeFort III osteotomy is the surgical treatment performed in patients with mid-facial retrusions in craniofacial dysostoses such as Crouzon, Apert, Pfeiffer syndromes, etc. The first authors to report the accomplishment of this osteotomy were Gillies and Harrison8 in 1951, this technique was then resumed and improved by Tessier in 19671, who made five different variants mainly regarding the typology of the osteotomy concerning the lateral wall of the orbit. Recently, distraction techniques have been applied to the upper mid-face which foresees a gradual advancement of the mid-face through the osteogenetic distraction procedure. The purpose of this retrospective clinical outcome study is to evaluate and compare the two different surgical techniques through the experience acquired during the treatment of 15 cases of craniofacial dysostoses from 1990-2005, and through international literature. The standard surgery technique was performed in 5 of these patients, whereas the osteogenetic distraction technique was performed in the remaining 10. All patients were studied preoperatively through the acquisition of photographic images, cephalometric analysis of the skull, and the study on plaster models of the occlusion of the dental arches. The instrumental exams required before surgery are the following: telecranium X-rays in two projections, orthopanoramic X-rays, CT. The results of this study indicate that the osteodistraction technique represents the choice treatment in severe retrusions of the mid-face while the traditional surgical technique remains indicated in adult patients that are in need of moderate advancements. © 2006 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.