Review ArticleClinical Use of Immunosuppressants in Duchenne Muscular DystrophyIannitti, Tommaso MS*; Capone, Stefania MS†; Feder, David MD, PhD‡; Palmieri, Beniamino MD, PhD† Author Information From the *Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK; †Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy; and ‡Department of Pharmacology, ABC Faculty of Medicine, Santo André São Paulo Brazil. The authors certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript. The authors hereby certify that, all work contained in this review, is original work of the authors. All the information taken from other articles, including tables and figures, have been referenced in the reference list. The authors claim full responsibility for the contents of the article. The authors have contributed equally to this work. This review has not been supported by grants. Reprints: Tommaso Iannitti, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow, G4 0BA, UK (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease: September 2010 - Volume 12 - Issue 1 - p 1-21 doi: 10.1097/CND.0b013e3181d4a4f9 Buy Metrics Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative disease primarily affecting voluntary muscles with secondary consequences on heart and breathing muscles. DMD is an X-linked recessive disease that results in the loss of dystrophin, a key muscle protein. Inflammation can play different roles in DMD; it can be a secondary response to muscle degeneration, a primary cause of degeneration, or can contribute to the disease progression. Several immunosuppressants have been used with the aim to reduce the inflammation associated with DMD. Most recently, myoblast transplantation has shown the possibility to restore the dystrophin lack in the DMD patient's muscle fibers and this evidence has emphasized the importance of the use of immunosuppressants and the necessity of studying them and their secondary effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the main immunosuppressants drugs starting from the mdx mice experiments and concluding with the most recent human clinical studies. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.