ARTICLEA Review of Perioperative Nerve Injury to the Upper ExtremitiesBarner, Kristen C. MD; Landau, Mark E. MD; Campbell, William W. MD, MSHA Author Information From the Department of Neurology, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the United States Army or the Department of Defense. Address reprint requests toKristen C. Barner, MD, 6900 Georgia Ave., Department of Neurology, Walter Reed AMC, Washington DC 20307. Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease 4(3):p 117-123, March 2003. Buy Abstract Perioperative nerve injuries can be a complication of surgical procedures and accounts for approximately 16% of all anesthesia-related claims in the United States. Whereas ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is the most common, other nerve injuries of the upper extremity and the phrenic nerve are not rare occurrences. A number of possible etiologies have been proposed to explain perioperative nerve injury to include stretch, compression, ischemia, and metabolic derangement. There appears to be additional factors making some patients more prone to nerve injury than others, for example, the sex of the patient and pre-existing disease. Also, in some cases there is a discrepancy between the timing of the surgery and the injury manifestations that can be the result of delayed recognition or an insult in the postoperative setting. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.