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Women's Prehospital Delay Associated With Myocardial Infarction: Does Race Really Matter?

The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: July-August 2007 - Volume 22 - Issue 4 - p 286-287
doi: 10.1097/01.JCN.0000278962.28619.03
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Back to Top | Article Outline

CE TEST QUESTIONS

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide registered professional nurses with an opportunity to review a study that investigated how treatment-seeking delay intervals differ between black and white women and the clinical and personal characteristics associated with getting to treatment within 2 hours of onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

  1. Outline the results of previous studies that investigated the effects of coronary heart disease (CHD), delays in treatment time, and recognition of AMI symptoms.
  2. Discuss the findings, limitations, and recommendations resulting from this study.

1. Which of these statements regarding CHD is accurate?

a. It is the second leading cause of death of all women in the United States.

b. It is the second leading cause of disability of all women in the United States.

c. Black women are more likely to die from CHD compared to white women.

d. White women are more likely to experience disability from CHD compared to black women.

2. According to national data, the approximate percentage of individuals who delay seeking treatment for AMI symptoms for more than 4 hours is

a. 25%.

b. 33%.

c. 50%.

d. 66%

3. Studies revealed that an increase in delay time for treatment for AMI symptoms is associated with a history of

a. angina.

b. smoking.

c. obesity.

d. stroke.

4. Which of the following has been found to decrease delay time in seeking treatment for AMI symptoms?

a. family history of cardiac death

b. recent cardiac procedure

c. low education level

d. low income level

5. This study revealed that the woman least likely to report having attributed her symptoms to an AMI

a. is black.

b. is white.

c. has a history of hypertension.

d. has less than a 9th grade education.

6. Review of this study's demographic and clinical variables revealed that black women were more likely to

a. be older than 65 years.

b. have a history of diabetes.

c. have an annual family income of $10,000 to $19,999.

d. take more than 4 prescription medications per day.

7. Review of this study's demographic and clinical variables revealed that white women were more likely to

a. be younger than 65 years.

b. have a 9th to 12th grade education.

c. have a history of chronic heart failure.

d. have an annual family income >30,000.

8. Results of this study revealed that reports of receiving treatment within 2 hours of symptom onset was significantly associated with

a. a history of diabetes.

b. living in an urban setting.

c. eligibility for public insurance.

d. an annual family income ≥30,000.

9. Which of the following individuals is most likely to get treatment within 2 hours of symptom onset?

a. black women receiving Medicaid

b. white women with private insurance

c. black women who have had a previous myocardial infarction

d. white women who have had a previous myocardial infarction

10. Which of these statements about women who attributed their symptoms to AMI is correct?

a. Almost 90% of all women who attributed their symptoms to AMI were 1.5 times as likely to get to treatment within 2 hours.

b. There were no differences noted between black and white women who attributed their symptoms to AMI and the likelihood of seeking treatment within 2 hours.

c. Black women who attributed their symptoms to AMI were nearly 5 times as likely to get treatment within 2 hours.

d. White women who attributed their symptoms to AMI were nearly 4 times as likely to get treatment within 2 hours.

11. Black women in this study had a mean delay time of

a. 1.0 hours.

b. 1.5 hours.

c. 12.9 hours.

d. 13.3 hours.

12. White women in this study had a mean delay time of

a. 1.0 hours.

b. 1.5 hours.

c. 12.9 hours.

d. 13.3 hours.

13. Which statement about the effect of insurance on mean delay time is accurate?

a. White women with private insurance were 3.2 times as likely to seek treatment within 2 hours after symptoms onset compared to those with public insurance.

b. Black women with private insurance were 2.3 times as likely to seek treatment within 2 hours after symptoms onset compared to those with public insurance.

c. White women eligible for public insurance were 3.2 times as likely to seek treatment within 2 hours after symptoms onset compared to those who were not public-insurance eligible.

d. Black women eligible for public insurance were 2.3 times as likely to seek treatment within 2 hours after symptoms onset compared to those who were not public-insurance eligible.

14. Which of the following is a limitation of this study sample?

a. Women without insurance were excluded from the study.

b. Those recruited later in the study may have been positively influenced by the media.

c. Study participants were limited to those who had an AMI within the previous 6 to 12 weeks.

d. Familiarity between the researcher and study participants may have biased data collection.

15. The strongest and most striking finding from this study was that

a. women are less likely to delay seeking treatment for AMI symptoms compared to men.

b. approximately 500,000 women will die within 1 hour after the onset of AMI symptoms each year.

c. those who attributed their symptoms to AMI were more likely to seek medical assistance within 2 hours after onset of AMI symptoms.

d. approximately 60% of all females delay seeking treatment for AMI symptoms for longer than 12 hours.

16. Which of the following statements about delay time during this study period is correct?

a. It did not significantly decrease.

b. It increased by 25% for black women.

c. It increased by 25% for white women.

d. It was positively influenced by public campaigns.

17. A 2006 survey revealed that the percentage of women that reported attributing their symptoms to AMI was

a. less than 20%.

b. 25-30%.

c. 35-40%.

d. more than 45%.

18. The authors recommend that it is essential for nurses to

a. help improve access to emergency medical care for all women.

b. increase awareness of the consequences of CHD in women.

c. identify those with public insurance at increased risk for ignoring AMI symptoms.

d. refer women older than 50 years with 2 or more cardiac risk factors to a case manager.

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