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Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease

The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: September-October 2005 - Volume 20 - Issue 5 - p 352–353
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Back to Top | Article Outline

CE Test Questions

GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide registered professional nurses with the latest research findings on differences between men and women with regard to the prevalence, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD).

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to:

  1. Outline the connection between gender and the prevalence of CAD.
  2. Discuss gender in relation to the causes of CAD.
  3. Discuss gender in relation to the diagnosis and treatment of CAD.

1. Which statement about CAD in women is correct?

a. The prevalence of CAD in women decreases from 1 in 3 at ages 45 to 54 to 1 in 8 at ages over 65.

b. CAD is associated with lower morbidity and mortality in women than in men.

c. The prevalence of CAD in women increases from 1 in 12 at ages 45 to 54 to 1 in 8 at ages over 65.

d. The clinical manifestations of CAD in women lag by 10 years compared with those in men.

2. What do women consider to be their greatest health threat?

a. breast cancer

b. CAD

c. HIV/AIDS

d. cervical cancer

3. What gender-mediated anatomic difference is thought to negatively influence treatment outcomes in women?

a. lower center of gravity in the female body

b. smaller epicardial vessels in women

c. larger internal mammary arteries in women

d. smaller myocardium in women

4. How do women and men differ with regard to presentation of acute coronary events?

a. Men present more frequently with non—ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

b. Women present more frequently with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

c. Men present more frequently with unstable angina.

d. Women present more frequently with unstable angina.

5. What gender-related difference in CAD pathophysiology is suspected as a mechanism accounting for poorer prognoses for women compared with those for men?

a. Estrogen may be involved in altering plaque stability via inflammatory mechanisms.

b. Testosterone may be involved in altering plaque stability via inflammatory mechanisms.

c. C-reactive protein (CRP) appears to decrease in the presence of increased estrogen levels.

d. High levels of CRP have been shown to have weak prognostic value in both women and men.

6. What is themostsignificant gender-related difference in traditional CAD risk factors?

a. Estrogen, which is associated with greater risk among women than among men.

b. Smoking, which is associated with greater risk among men than among women.

c. Diabetes mellitus, which is associated with greater risk among women than among men.

d. Dyslipidemia, which is associated with greater risk among men than among women.

7. What percentage of women in the United States has impaired glucose tolerance?

a. about 2%

b. about 12%

c. about 32%

d. about 20%

8. Resistance to smoking cessation is linked to

a. depression.

b. decreased CAD risk.

c. improved response to acute coronary syndromes.

d. unstable angina.

9. All of the following circulatory conditions are associated with obesityexcept

a. increases in cardiac preload.

b. increases in cardiac output.

c. expansion of the plasma volume.

d. decreases in stroke volume.

10. Which of the following terms refers to a constellation of the following 5 risk factors: high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and abdominal obesity?

a. metabolic syndrome

b. adult-onset diabetes

c. syndrome X

d. hyperlipidemia

11. When complaining of chest pain, what symptoms do women typically describe?

a. discomfort centralized over the upper sternum

b. crushing chest pain radiating through the left shoulder and arm

c. burning, squeezing, or upper abdominal fullness, dyspnea, nausea, weakness, cold sweat, dizziness, and fatigue

d. pain, discomfort, or pressure in the chest, collarbone, and neck

12. What are the prospects for noninvasive prevention of CAD in women?

a. There is little evidence that CAD in women is preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications.

b. To date, no primary or secondary CAD prevention trials have focused on women.

c. Primary and secondary CAD prevention trials focusing on women have produced highly inconsistent results.

d. There is strong evidence that CAD in women is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications.

13. For what form of treatment has the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa agents produced a similar risk reduction related to cardiac events in men and women?

a. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting

b. coronary artery bypass graft surgery

c. valve repair and replacement surgery

d. coronary angiography

14. Which of the following isnota bias that has been found in referrals for coronary angiography?

a. Women are less likely to be considered for this diagnostic procedure.

b. Test results are more likely to be positive among women than among men.

c. Women wait longer than men do to go to cardiac angiography.

d. Positive results from 2 stress tests have been required in women, as opposed to just 1 in men.

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