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Self-Management Program for Heart Healthy Behavior Among Middle- and Old-Aged Korean Women at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

Shin, Nah-Mee PhD, APRN-ACNP, BC; Choi, JiWon PhD, RN; Cho, InHae MSN, RN; Park, Byung-Jun MSN, APN

doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000406
Feature Article/Online Only

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increasing among Koreans, and middle-aged and older women are at risk of metabolic syndrome. Effective strategies to promote lifestyle modification need to be developed.

Objective: We examined the effects of a self-management program on improving the cardiovascular health status and promoting healthy behaviors among overweight or obese Korean women at risk of metabolic syndrome.

Methods: A pretest and posttest intervention design was used. Sixty women participated in a group teaching session. They also received a pedometer and a diary for self-monitoring. On the basis of blood test results, women's metabolic syndrome status was identified. Thirty women with metabolic syndrome received additional tailored counseling and weekly follow-up calls for 4 weeks, whereas 30 women without metabolic syndrome did not receive any tailored counseling or follow-up calls. Twenty-three women in the MetS group and 22 women in the non-MetS group completed the posttest.

Results: Overall, women significantly improved their cardiovascular health status including systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and 10-year risk estimates from pretest to posttest. Seventy-eight percent of the MetS group (n = 18) no longer had metabolic syndrome, whereas 5% of the non-MetS group (n = 1) became to have metabolic syndrome. Women significantly increased frequency and duration of walking per week and significantly decreased the time spent sitting.

Conclusions: Promoting self-management for healthy behaviors might be effective for obese or overweight women to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, if it is tailored to their health needs.

Nah-Mee Shin, PhD, APRN-ACNP, BC Professor, College of Nursing, Korea University, Seoul.

JiWon Choi, PhD, RN Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco.

InHae Cho, MSN, RN Doctoral Candidate, College of Nursing, Korea University, Seoul.

Byung-Jun Park, MSN, APN Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Daegu Health College, Korea.

This research was funded by an internal grant from College of Nursing, Korea University (G1100588).

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence JiWon Choi, PhD, RN, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California St, Ste 340, San Francisco, CA 94118 (

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