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Women With Heart Failure Are Disproportionately Studied as Compared With Prevalence

A Review of Published Studies from 2013

Pressler, Susan J. PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN

doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000212

Background: Women with heart failure (HF) have been underrepresented in research.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine participation of women in HF research by evaluating research studies published in 2013 in 11 peer-reviewed journals.

Methods: Titles, abstracts, and full publications were reviewed to determine if studies met eligibility criteria and to abstract data. Data analysis was completed using means, standard deviations, quartiles, and Pearson correlation coefficients.

Results: A total of 264 studies met eligibility criteria and were reviewed. Mean percentage of women was 32% across 129 studies that used original data sources and 34% across 135 studies that used existing data sources. Median percentage of women was 29% across studies using original and existing data sources.

Conclusions: Current data from studies published in 2013 support that women continue to be underrepresented in HF studies. Further research may provide insights to better understand the experiences, needs, and outcomes of women with HF.

Susan J. Pressler, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN Professor and PhD Program Director, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

The author has no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence Susan J. Pressler, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, 400 N Ingalls, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5482 (

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