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One Theoretical Framework for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women

Peterson, Jane Anthony PhD, RN, ARNP

The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: July/August 2012 - Volume 27 - Issue 4 - p 295–302
doi: 10.1097/JCN.0b013e31822072fc

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women in the United States. Vulnerable and underserved women are even less likely to participate in healthy lifestyle behaviors to prevent CVD than the general US population. Many women are not aware that they are at risk for CVD and do not modify unhealthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce their risks for CVD. Healthcare providers may not promote awareness of CVD or consistently counsel female patients concerning lifestyle behavior modifications to reduce their risks for CVD. “The Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women 2011 Update: A Guideline From the American Heart Association” provides a guide for healthcare providers to help women lower their risk for heart disease. By using a theoretical approach, nurses can facilitate implementation of these evidence-based guidelines to help women reduce their risks for CVD. Commonly used intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational- and community-level health behavior change theories that can be used to effectively promote CVD risk reduction in women will be discussed. The theoretical basis for changing CVD risk behaviors in women can be applied by using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to guide planning, implementing, and evaluating health behavior programs. The purpose of this article was to help nurses improve healthcare delivery by using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model as a theoretical framework to guide CVD risk reduction efforts for women.

Jane Anthony Peterson, PhD, RN, ARNP Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Kansas City.

The author has no funding or conflicts of interest to report.

Correspondence Jane Anthony Peterson, PhD, RN, ARNP, University of Missouri, 2464 Charlotte St, Kansas City, MO 64108 (

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved