Smoking and obesity are widely recognized cardiovascular risk factors for significant morbidity and mortality in women. Although women still smoke less than men do, smoking among women is on the increase, especially in younger women and teenagers. Reduction of cardiovascular risk through smoking cessation while maintaining weight is a major goal of intervention. The purpose of this article is to discuss best care practices for women with tobacco addiction using a 3-point integration of clinical expertise, the best available evidence gained from systematic research, and an analysis of satisfaction with care data. A model for a smoking cessation intervention with weight management content is presented using a conceptual framework of social learning theory, self-efficacy judgments, and the 4 principal sources of self-efficacy information. The specific aims of this pilot study are to (1) test the feasibility of the study methods and procedures, including subject accrual, attrition, and reliability of the instruments and protocol; (2) explore utilization of and satisfaction with the intervention; and (3) describe the impact of the intervention on primary (smoking biomarker) and secondary (weight/body mass index, depression, partner support, and smoking cessation self-efficacy temptations) outcomes. Results show that the study is feasible, but modifications are needed to improve utilization and satisfaction with care. The primary outcome showed a reduction in the smoking biomarker while maintaining weight at the 2-month follow-up. There was also improvement in skills to manage temptation situations that supported the conceptual framework. Hypotheses are presented for a future experimental study.
Lynne Buchanan, PhD, APRN, BC Associate Professor and Advanced Practice Nurse Tobacco Specialty, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.
Sheila Likness, MSN, RN Research Nurse, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.
This research was supported by a grant from the Tobacco Settlement Trust Fund, LB 506 no. 100-04-FB.
Corresponding author Lynne Buchanan, PhD, APRN, BC, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985330 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5330 (firstname.lastname@example.org).