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Instructions to Authors

The Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (JCMA) is the official peer-reviewed and SCIE-indexed publication of the Chinese Medical Association, which is based in Taipei, Taiwan. The Journal is published every month by Wolters Kluwer

Authors are welcome to submit original contributions relating to all fields of medicine and allied disciplines that are of interest to the medical profession.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at http://www.icmje.org. These Instructions to Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult www.ejcma.org for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

1.  Manuscript Submission

1.1.  Online Submission

Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) may be submitted online to the JCMA through the Editorial Manager System (EM) at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jcma. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submis- sion process. If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EM website; you may also contact the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office

Journal of the Chinese Medical Association

Chinese Medical Association Taipei Veterans General Hospital 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road Taipei 112, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Tel: (+886) (0)2 2871-2121 ext. 3043

Fax: (+886) (0)2 2877-1873

E-mail: jcma@vghtpe.gov.tw

1.2.  Important Information

  • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format and pre- pared in the simplest form possible. All manuscripts should be formatted double-spaced with one-inch margins for A4 paper. Preferred font is Times New Roman, 12 pt. All pages should be numbered consecutively, starting at the beginning of the article immediately after the abstract page.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes, headers and footers. References especially should NOT be formatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes" function.
  • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figure legends in one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the correct resolution and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see Section 10.8. for more information.

1.3.  Supporting Documents

The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1),(2) and (3) are mandatory. Items (4), (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.

(1)    Cover Letter / Title Page. This must include the following information:

    • title of the manuscript
    • names (spelled out in full) of all the authors*, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase letter after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation (*the name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang)
    • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
    • e-mail address of the first author
    • a statement that the material contained in the manuscript has not been previously published and is not being concurrently submitted elsewhere
    • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to be listed as authors but who nevertheless contributed to the manuscript (such as those who provided writing assistance, for example) should be disclosed
    • list of manuscripts that have been published, submitted, or are in press that are similar to the submission to the JCMA (and include in your submission copies of those similar manuscripts so that JCMA Editors can be assured there is no overlap)
    • your signature and those of ALL your coauthors
  1. Optional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wish to review or not to review your manuscript, please note it in the submission system.

(2)    Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. You are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Chinese Medical Association. Please fill out the online JCMA Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement at www.editorialmanager.com/jcma. Your and those of ALL your coauthors must be complete it.

(3)    Copyright Transfer Agreement. You are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Chinese Medical Association. Please fill out the online JCMA Copyright Transfer Agreement form at www.editorialmanager.com/jcma. Your and those of ALL your coauthors must be complete it.

(4)    Ethics Statement. Articles covering the use of human or animal samples in research, or human or animal experiments must be accompanied by a letter of approval from the relevant review committee or authorities. See Section 3 for more information.

(5)    Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section 4 for more information.

(6)    Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must state informed written consent was obtained in the manuscript. See Section 5 for more information.

(7)    Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted mate- rial from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copy- righted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.

2.  Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is poten- tially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, profes- sional advancement or a successful outcome. JCMA Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of inter- est, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as hono- raria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or profes- sional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellec- tual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

3.  Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institu- tional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review commit- tees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the meth- ods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardi- ans for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed written consent was obtained.

For work involving animals, the guidelines  for  their  care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experi- ments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for ani- mal experiments (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm) should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

4.  Reporting Clinical Trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to http://www.consort- statement.org for more information). The JCMA has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at http:// www.icmje.org.

5.  Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

Please state informed written consent was obtained in the manuscript if your manuscript contains patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees. Omitting data or making data less specific to de- identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in  which written informed consent was obtained.

6.  Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

7.  Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.


8.  Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Wolters Kluwer Author Services*. For manuscripts that are judged by JCMA Editors or reviewers to be written in poor English but otherwise worthy of consideration for publication, authors are required to attach the English Editing Certificate. Otherwise, their manuscript will be rejected.

9.  Article Categories

The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

9.1.  Editorials

These are usually written by invited authors or editorial board mem- bers and are comments on recent news or articles published in the Journal. Typical length: no more than 1200 words and not more than 15 references.

9.2.  Review Articles

These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scien- tific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated. Figures, tables, algorithms and other forms of illustration should be included as appropriate.

Although many of the Review Articles published in the Journal are usually written by invited authors who are recognized experts on that particular topic, unsolicited Reviews are welcome and will be given due consideration.

Typical length: abstract, no more than 300 words; main text, no more than 3500 words and not more than 100 references.

9.3.  Original Articles

These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal stud- ies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and signifi- cant contributions to the field.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/ participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results pre- sented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or fig- ures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summa- rize the essential features of the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Typical length: structured abstract, no more than 300 words; main text, no more than 3000 words and not more than 60 references.

9.4.  Case Reports

These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction  should describe  the purpose  of the  present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case Report should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other information pertinent to the case(s).

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

Case reports should have no more than 6 authors. Typical length: abstract, no more than 200 words; main text, no more than 1200 words and not more than 20 references.

Authors should note that case reports are subject to the pay- ment of peer-review fees and publication charges; please see Section 12 for more information.

9.5.  Brief Communications

These may be prepared according to the format of Original Articles, but are expected to be concise presentations of preliminary experi- mental results, instrumentation and analytical techniques, or aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application.

The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.

Brief communications should have no more than 6 authors. Typical length: abstract, no more than 200 words; main text, no more than 1200 words and not more than 40 references.

9.6.  Letters to the Editor

Brief letters of constructive comments in response to previously published JCMA articles are welcome. Letters should have a title, no more than 4 authors, be no longer than 500 words, and may include up to 10 references. Ensure that the corresponding author's mailing and e-mail addresses are included. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of JCMA Editors. Letters are selected based on clarity, significance, and space.

10.  Manuscript Preparation

All manuscripts should be formatted double-spaced with one-inch margins for A4 paper. Preferred font is Times New Roman, 12 pt. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, keywords, text, conflicts of interest statement (if any), acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

10.1.  Cover Letter / Title Page

  

See Section 1.3 (1)

10.2.  Abstract and Keywords

An abstract and 3–5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports and Brief Communications.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured into the sections listed below and be no more than 300 words long.

Background: briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.

Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.

Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statis- tical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that informa- tion in the abstract matches that in the main text.

Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your con- clusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.

Abstracts for Case Reports should be unstructured (in one single paragraph with no section headings), no more than 200 words long, and include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.

Abstracts for Review Articles (not more than 300 words) and Brief Communications (not more than 200 words) should also be unstructured (in one single paragraph with no section headings).

Keywords should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (http://www.nlm.nih. gov/mesh/meshhome.html).

No abstract or keywords are required for Editorials and Letters to the Editor.

10.3.  Main Text

No author information such as names, affiliations and contact infor- mation should appear in the main text. The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Subheadings in long papers are acceptable if needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest Statement (if any), Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each section should begin on a new page.

10.3.1.    Abbreviations

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subse- quent abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary.

10.3.2.    Numbers

Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

10.3.3.  Units

Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

10.3.4.    Names of drugs, devices and other products

Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary  Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, quot;…SPSS version 11 was used (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

10.3.5.  Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http:// www.genenames.org). You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/genes-expression. The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/ index.html. In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

10.3.6.    Statistical requirements

Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest value that should be  expressed is p <

0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

      1. Personal communications and unpublished data

        These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the com- munication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

10.4.  Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/ Support Statement

Since it is difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the JCMA requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest and let readers judge for themselves. Therefore, please ensure that you provide information about any potential financial and non- financial conflicts of interest (see Section 2 for more information) in a concise paragraph after the main text.

All financial and material support for the research, work, writ- ing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and com- pletely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

10.5.  Acknowledgments

After the Conflicts of Interest Statement and/or Funding/ Support Statement, general acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.


10.6.  References

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

      1. In the main text, tables and figure legends
  • References should be indicated by superscripted numbers according to order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first men- tioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available refer- ence to an important concept.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") as references. Also see Section 10.3.7.
      1. In the references list
  • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript accord- ing to the order of citation in the text.
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
  • Journal references should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
  • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by "et al".
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, web- site address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

Standard journal articles

Luo CB, Teng MM, Chang FC, Lin CJ, Guo WY, Chang CY. Stent- assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms: a single center experience. J Chin Med Assoc 2012;75:322–8.

Huang HK, Chiang CC, Hung SH, Su YP, Chiu FY, Liu CL, et al. The role of autologous bone graft in surgical treatment of hyper- trophic nonunion of midshaft clavicle fractures. J Chin Med Assoc 2012;75:216–20.

Journal supplement

Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl  3):S78–80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract

Hofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carci- noma—five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie 2002;81:342–5. [In German, English abstract]


Book with edition

Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982.

Book with editors

Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter in book wit editor and edition

Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615–72.

Book series with editors

Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1–4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977–1978.

Bulletin

World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications

Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158(2). Available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

Item presented at a meeting but not yet published

Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31–June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL, abstract 359.

Item presented at a meeting and published

Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filter- ing IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004, abstract 337.

Thesis

Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis,  1971.

Website

Glueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy—project update. Telehealth News 1998. Available at http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newslettr_4a. html#1. Accessed November 15, 2008.

Company/manufacturer publications/pamphlets

Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no.

49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2–3.

ZstatFlu. Package insert. Oklahoma City, OK: ZymeTx Inc; 2000.

10.7.     Tables

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using super- scripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of signifi- cance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

10.8.     Figures

10.8.1.    General guidelines

The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum nec- essary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requir- ing explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section 10.7.

Patient identification should be obscured. All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the draw- ing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.

Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at the cor- rect resolution (see Section 10.8.2.) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg".

10.8.2.  Formats

Tables. Photographs of tables are not acceptable. Type each table, 1.5 spacing throughout (including column headings, footnotes, and data), on a separate page. Tables may be included as part of the Main Body file and placed after the References section. Number the tables in sequence in Arabic numerals and supply a concise, informative title for each one. Each column in the tables should carry a concise heading describing the data in the column. Use lowercase superscript letters to designate footnotes, and type the footnotes below the tables to which they refer. Tables are cited in the text in numerical order. Each table should be able to be understood without consulting the text.

Like text, tables should be prepared using a standard word-processing program and may be included within the main body text document, or uploaded separately. Do not upload table files more than once (that is, in the main document and in separate files). Acceptable document file types for tables include .DOC and .DOCX; do not submit PDF, XLS or XLSX type files.

Acceptable figure file formats

  • Do not embed figures into the main body file
  • All final digital figures for accepted manuscripts must be submitted in EPS, TIFF, JPG.
  • Each figure must be uploaded as a separate file.
  • Histology figures must be in color.
  • Monochrome images (such as line graphs) should be prepared at a resolution of 1200 DPI.
  • Halftones images (black/white or color) should be prepared at a resolution of 300 DPI.
  • Combination halftones (images containing both pictures and text labeling) should be prepared at 600 DPI.
  • Color images must be saved as ''CMYK''. Images saved as ''RGB'' are not acceptable for printing.
  • Your manuscript may be returned to you for correction if the images are of insufficient quality.
  • Artwork submitted to the Journal will be checked for quality. Authors submitting a revised paper will have the opportunity to check the quality of their images and make the necessary changes. This step is required for all revisions.

11.  The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowl- edged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be pro- vided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected promptly without review.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. The JCMA follows a double-blind peer review process. Authors may submit a list in their cover letter of reviewers who they wish to review or not to review their manuscript. However, the actual peer reviewers invited will remain anonymous and may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the authors as the selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of JCMA Editors. The editors and reviewers will not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review to anyone except the manuscript's corresponding author.

The corresponding author will usually be notified within 6 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publica- tion, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office within 60 days (via the same method by which the manuscript was originally submitted). Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

12.  Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the same method by which the manuscript was originally submitted via EM. It is a basic requirement that the manuscript be prepared using good English. The Editorial Office reserves the right to edit poor English as suggested by the reviewer(s) and/or Editorial Board before the final version is decided.

Accepted manuscripts are then presented to the Publisher to be copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsi- ble for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

13.  Publication Charges and Reprints

Starting from 1 January 2019, authors of accepted articles will be charged a publication  fee of US$500(NT$15000) for all articles (except for invited articles and editorials). The Journal will bear the cost of publication for articles of 8 printed pages or less for Original Articles. Authors will be charged US$100 (NT$3000) per extra page. Authors will also be charged a flat fee of US$300 (NT$9000) per article if it contains any figures and/or tables in color for print.

Professional reprints (which include a cover page) of your article may be ordered at prices based on the cost of production.

14.  Copyright

The JCMA is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Chinese Medical Association. Manuscripts published in the JCMA become the permanent property of the Chinese Medical Association and Wolters Kluwer. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No JCMA article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Chinese Medical Association and Wolters Kluwer.