Case Report: PDF OnlyPregnancy-induced Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Combined with Autoimmune Hemolytic AnemiaTeng, Chieh-Lina, e; Hwang, Guang-Yuhe; Lee, Bor-Jenb; Wang, Ren-Chingc; Chou, Ming-Mingd, * Author Information aDivision of Hematology/Oncology, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. bIntensive Care Unit, Department of Medicine, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. cDepartment of Pathology, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. dDepartment of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. eDepartment of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. *Correspondence to: Dr Ming-Ming Chou, Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Section 3, Chung-Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan, R.O.C. E-mail: [email protected] Received: April 30, 2008; • Accepted: October 24, 2008. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 72(3):p 156-159, March 2009. | DOI: 10.1016/S1726-4901(09)70043-7 Metrics Abstract Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), presenting with fever, cytopenia, liver dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperferritinemia, is associated with various etiologies, including infections, collagen vascular diseases, and malignancies. The present report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed HLH combined with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at 23 weeks of gestation. Without response to corticosteroid, the patient completely recovered from both HLH and AIHA after termination of the pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced immune dysregulation and cytokine overproduction in genetically susceptible women may play critical roles in HLH. The differential diagnosis of pregnant women with fever and cytopenia should include HLH. Pregnancy termination should be considered when pregnancy-induced HLH is refractory to medical treatment. © 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.