Angiogenesis has been extensively studied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a common biochemical marker for tumor burden and anaerobic glycolysis, is a poor prognostic factor for AML. Regulated by hypoxia-induced factor, both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are responsive to cancer-related angiogenesis. To study the roles of serum LDH, VEGF and bFGF in AML angiogenesis, we investigated bone marrow vascularity in untreated AML patients, and analyzed its relationship to serum LDH, VEGF and bFGF levels.
Eighteen (11 males, 7 females; mean age, 57.7 years) de novo, untreated AML patients were enrolled. Bone marrow vascularity was evaluated by staining bone marrow core biopsy tissue with endothelial cell marker CD31 or CD34. Serum LDH was determined with the Wroblewski-La Due method. Serum VEGF and bFGF were determined with enzyme-linked immunoassay. The relationship of LDH, VEGF and bFGF level to bone marrow vessel numbers was examined by linear regression.
Log LDH significantly correlated to AML bone marrow vascularity (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). VEGF and bFGF concentrations did not correlate with AML angiogenesis.
These results suggest that serum LDH, but not VEGF and bFGF concentrations, can be used as a simple parameter for predicting vessel formation in AML bone marrow.