ReviewSarcopenia in Immune-Mediated Rheumatic Diseases—ReviewSanto, Rafaela Cavalheiro do Espírito PhD∗; Baker, Joshua F. MD, MSCE†; Santos, Leonardo Peterson dos MD∗; Silva, Mariana Marchezan Menezes da∗,‡; Xavier, Ricardo Machado PhD∗ Author Information From the ∗Laboratório de Doenças Auto Imunes, Serviço de Reumatologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Postgraduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil †Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center and the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA ‡Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Correspondence: Rafaela Cavalheiro do Espírito Santo, PhD, Laboratório de Doenças Auto Imunes, Serviço de Reumatologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Postgraduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2350 Ramiro Barcelos Street, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-903, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]. JCR: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology ():10.1097/RHU.0000000000001913, November 3, 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001913 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Introduction Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by decreased muscle strength and muscle mass, which can impact physical function. Sarcopenia develops as a consequence of age-related decline (primary sarcopenia) and has a major impact on physical, social, and emotional well-being. In addition, patients with rheumatic diseases may suffer from sarcopenia independently of aging (secondary sarcopenia). Exercise, pharmacological treatments, and nutritional supplementation are some of the strategies used for the management of sarcopenia in the general population. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence around the prevalence and impact of sarcopenia in patients with rheumatic diseases. Conclusions From our review, we can state that sarcopenia is a common and prevalent condition among the rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, the impacts of sarcopenia are not well-appreciated, and the implementation of treatment strategies has not been widespread. Strategies such as exercise and some pharmacological treatments are effective in improving physical and functional impairment related to these conditions. Future Research Directions in the Field New pharmacological treatments are being actively studied and may contribute in the future to the management of sarcopenia. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.