Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) associated with thrombosis (arterial and/or venous) and/or obstetrical manifestations. However, various manifestations, which are considered to be noncriteria manifestations, are frequently found in APS.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether noncriteria manifestations may be found more frequently in subjects with thrombotic and/or obstetrical APS (“criteria” manifestations) in a population of patients with primary APS (PAPS). This study presents the results from our national cohort.
Patients and Methods
This is a cross-sectional study of 360 PAPS patients. Data regarding the presence of thrombocytopenia, livedo reticularis, chorea, and valvulopathy were analyzed. The aPL analysis included the detection of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs: immunoglobulin G [IgG]/IgM), anti-β2 glycoprotein I (IgG/IgM), and lupus anticoagulant positivity.
In our cohort, livedo reticularis was significantly related to arterial thromboses in the same way as valvular manifestations (valvular vegetations and valvular thickening and dysfunction not related to age) (p = 0.0001, p = 0.013, respectively). Age was strongly related to all the noncriteria manifestations analyzed. Thrombocytopenia was significantly related to β2 glycoprotein I IgG and lupus anticoagulant positivity (p = 0.043, p = 0.030, respectively), as well as to double and triple aPL positivity (p = 0.041, p = 0.013 respectively). Moreover, in a multivariate model, livedo reticularis was strongly and independently related to arterial thrombosis in our cohort (odds ratio, 2.010; confidence interval, 1.229–3.288; p = 0.005).
This cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of Serbian PAPS patients confirmed a strong relationship between livedo reticularis and arterial thrombosis, suggesting a more cautious approach regarding the presence of noncriteria manifestations, especially livedo reticularis, in APS.