ReviewsANCA-Associated Vasculitis in Latin America A Systematic Literature Review: About Their Epidemiology and Their Clinical FeaturesPimentel-Quiroz, Victor R. MD∗,†; Sattui, Sebastian E. MD, MS‡; Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F. MD, MSc∗,†; Alarcón, Graciela S. MD, MPH, MACR§,∥ Author Information From the ∗Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen–EsSalud †Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru ‡Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA §Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL ∥Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. S.E.S. is supported by the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium (VCRC)/Vasculitis Foundation Fellowship. The VCRC is part of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, an initiative of the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Science. The VCRC is funded through collaboration between the National Center for Advancing Translational Science and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U54 AR057319). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Correspondence: Victor R. Pimentel-Quiroz, MD, Universidad Científica del Sur, Carretera Panamericana Sur Km. 19, Villa El Salvador, Lima, Lima 42, Peru. E-mail: [email protected]. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.jclinrheum.com). JCR: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 28(1):p 44-51, January 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001827 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Most of the existing literature, including epidemiological studies and clinical trials, on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)–associated vasculitis (AAV) include North American (mainly United States and Canada), European, and Asian populations. Few studies have focused on multiethnic populations such as the one from Latin America. Racial and ethnic differences in the incidence of AAV could partially explain the comparatively low number of AAV studies originating in Latin America. However, given the racial/ethnic diversity as well as socioeconomic differences existing in this region, better reporting of AAV presentations and outcomes in Latin America could highlight valuable gaps on the understanding and treatment of these patients. Recently, larger case series and studies have provided better clinical information regarding AAV patients in Latin American countries; however, further information is needed to address gaps such as risk factors, genetic profiles, clinical features, and predictors of clinical outcomes. For these reasons, we have performed a systematic literature review to enhance our understanding of AAV patients in Latin America. We have included 11 articles focused on the epidemiological and clinical features of AAV in Latin America; some similarities and differences with AAV in other regions are shown in these articles. We have identified differences in their prevalence across Latin American countries, which may reflect reporting bias or true ethnic differences among the countries. Our findings should encourage further investigation into AAV in Latin America; such studies will hopefully lead to the optimal management of these patients. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.