Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus may occur in highly viremic mothers despite the infants receiving appropriate immunoprophylaxis. We aimed to review tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) data for preventing MTCT.
Methods and Data Selection:
We performed a systematic review between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2021 on PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Data was extracted from randomized controlled trials or cohort studies in English or Chinese. The outcomes of interest included the efficacy and safety of TDF versus TAF or TDF/TAF versus placebo for preventing MTCT (PROSPERO registration: CRD42021256656).
Data from forty-three studies (13 randomized controlled trials, 30 nonrandomized studies) were included in the review. All infants in the studies received appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Among 3656 highly viremic mothers treated with TDF, hepatitis B virus DNA suppression to the levels <200,000 IU/mL at delivery was achieved in 34% to 100% of mothers. MTCT rates were 0 to 5% and 2 to 83% in mothers treated with TDF and in those who received no treatment, respectively. Congenital malformation rates were 0 to 2.1% in the TDF groups, which did not differ from the nontreated groups. Similar findings were reported in 4 studies that enrolled 326 mothers for maternal TAF therapy, resulting in 0% of MTCT and 0% infant malformation. All studies observed that TDF or TAF maternal therapy reduced MTCT rates significantly without safety concerns when compared with untreated groups, except for 1 RCT that failed the therapeutic endpoint.
TDF is well established for preventing MTCT in highly viremic mothers, whereas TAF may become an option as data emerges.