A comprehensive review of treatments for nausea and vomiting (N/V).
N/V are common symptoms encountered in medicine. While most cases of acute N/V related to a specific cause can be straightforward to manage, other cases of acute N/V such as chemotherapy-induced N/V and especially chronic unexplained N/V can be difficult to control, leading to a significant decline in the patient’s quality of life and increased cost of medical care from repeated hospitalizations.
Traditional management has relied on pharmacotherapy which may be inadequate in a certain proportion of these patients. Many of the medications used in the management of N/V have significant side effect profiles making the need for new and improved interventions of great importance.
This review covers a broad review of the pathophysiology of N/V, pharmacotherapy, including safety concerns and controversies with established pharmaceuticals, newer immunotherapies, bioelectrical neuromodulation (including gastric electrical stimulation), behavioral and surgical therapies, and complementary medicine.
On the basis of emerging understandings of the pathophysiology of N/V, improved therapies are becoming available.