Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Thirty Years of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

A Review

Capurso, Lucio MD

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: March 2019 - Volume 53 - Issue - p S1–S41
doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001170

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was the first strain belonging to the genus Lactobacillus to be patented in 1989 thanks to its ability to survive and to proliferate at gastric acid pH and in medium containing bile, and to adhere to enterocytes. Furthermore LGG is able to produces both a biofilm that can mechanically protect the mucosa, and different soluble factors beneficial to the gut by enhancing intestinal crypt survival, diminishing apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium, and preserving cytoskeletal integrity. Moreover LGG thanks to its lectin-like protein 1 and 2 inhibits some pathogens such as Salmonella species. Finally LGG is able to promote type 1 immune-responsiveness by reducing the expression of several activation and inflammation markers on monocytes and by increasing the production of interleukin-10, interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages. A large number of research data on Lactobacillus GG is the basis for the use of this probiotic for human health. In this review we have considered predominantly randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, Cochrane Review, guide lines of Scientific Societies and anyway studies whose results were evaluated by means of relative risk, odds ratio, weighted mean difference 95% confidence interval. The effectiveness of LGG in gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea, antibiotic and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, respiratory tract infections, allergy, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cystic fibrosis, cancer, elderly end sport were analyzed.

Department of Gastroenterology, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy

The author declares that there is nothing to disclose.

Address correspondence to: Lucio Capurso, MD, Via Paolo Frisi 44, Rome 00197, Italy (e-mail:

Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.