PRESENTATIONThe Microbiome and Pancreatic Cancer An Evidence-based Association?Archibugi, Livia MD*; Signoretti, Marianna MD*; Capurso, Gabriele MD, PhD*,†Author Information *Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, S. Andrea Hospital, University “Sapienza,” Rome †Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy Division and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational and Clinical Research Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy L.A. and M.S. contributed equally. Supplement JCG—9th Probiotics, Prebiotics & New foods, Nutraceuticals and Botanicals, Rome, 10/12 September. The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. Address correspondence to: Gabriele Capurso, MD, PhD, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, Rome 00189, Italy (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: November/December 2018 - Volume 52 - Issue - p S82-S85 doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001092 Buy Metrics Abstract Many risk factors for pancreatic cancer are related with microbiome alteration. In the past few years, the human microbiome and its relation with the immune system have been linked with carcinogenesis of different organs distant from the gut, including the pancreas. Patterns of oral microbiome associated with periodontitis are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, possibly because of the increased systemic inflammatory response, or to the capacity of some specific bacteria to alter the host immune response, making it more favorable to cancer cells. Helicobacter pylori infection when affecting the gastric body mucosa with subsequent hypochlorhydria also seems associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. The composition of the intestinal microbiome is different in animal models and in humans with pancreatic cancer who have a distinct microbiome population compared with controls. Some specific bacteria can migrate from the intestine to the pancreas, and their ablation restores the immune system activity through its reprogramming with a switch toward a Th1 response and displays a protective effect toward tumor growth. More research in this area might lead to progress in terms of pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment, possibly in association with immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.