Association between chronic kidney disease and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear.
To assess the risk of CRC in patients with various chronic kidney diseases before and after kidney transplantation.
Electronic databases were searched for cohort studies assessing the risk of CRC in patients with chronic kidney diseases. The primary outcome was the risk of CRC among studies that reported the risk as standardized incidence rate (SIR).
Fifty-four studies, including 1,208,767 patients that reported the incidence of CRC in chronic kidney diseases were identified. SIR of CRC were obtained from 17 retrospective cohort studies. Among the 3 studies (4 reports) that included chronic kidney disease patients without kidney transplantation, there was a significant increased risk of CRC (pooled SIR 1.18) (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P=0.033). High heterogeneity was seen (I2=85.6%), and metaregression showed that there were positive correlations between the risk of CRC and the proportions of males, age and follow-up period. Among the 15 studies (17 reports) that included postkidney transplant patients, the pooled SIR was significantly increased at 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.71; P=0.00080). High heterogeneity was seen (I2=88.9%), and metaregression showed that the follow-up period correlated with the risk of CRC.
In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we demonstrated that patients with chronic kidney disease, regardless of a history of transplant, have a significant increased risk of CRC. A more intensive surveillance for CRC is required in this population.