To explore the diagnostic challenges, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated peripancreatic necrosis (PPN), with emphasis on the extent of involvement, and compare them to pancreatic necrosis (PN).
PPN, a relatively new term, has been included as a separate entity in the Revised Atlanta Classification.
Clinical data of recruited acute pancreatitis patients were recorded prospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scans were reviewed by expert radiologists blinded to clinical outcomes.
In total, 271 of the 400 acute pancreatitis patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography, of which 29 (11%) had PPN (14: limited; 15: extensive) and 124 (46%) PN (40: <30%, 16: 30% to 50%, 68: >50% of parenchyma). Patients with PPN were similar to PN in age (56 y), gender (55% male), and body mass index (29 kg/m2). Nutritional support was provided in 18 (62%) patients with PPN and 97 (78%) with PN (P=0.12). Drainage/debridement was required in 2 patients (7%) with PPN and 64 (53%) with parenchymal necrosis (P<0.001). Persistent organ failure rates did not differ significantly (34% vs. 51%, P=0.17), but hospital stay was shorter in patients with PPN (15 vs. 20 d, P=0.05). Limited PPN required no intervention and had similar persistent organ failure rates and hospitalization length with interstitial pancreatitis (both P≥0.12). Extensive PPN mainly developed in patients with persistent organ failure (60%) and rarely required drainage (2/15).
PPN prevalence was lower than PN with a ratio of 1:4. PPN rarely required intervention. Utilizing the extent of involvement has the potential to classify PPN and PN with escalating clinical significance and guide management.