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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Functional Dyspepsia: A Nationwide Multicenter Prospective Study in Korea

Kim, Sung Eun MD*; Park, Hyun Kyung MD*; Kim, Nayoung MD, PhD*; Joo, Young-Eun MD; Baik, Gwang-Ho MD; Shin, Jeong Eun MD§; Seo, Geom Seog MD; Kim, Gwang Ha MD; Kim, Heung-Up MD#; Kim, Hyun Young MD*; Kim, Seon Mie MD*; Seo, Ji-Hyun MD*; Park, Eun-Ha MD*; Cho, Sung-Il MD**

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: February 2014 - Volume 48 - Issue 2 - p e12–e18
doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31828f4bc9
ONLINE ARTICLES: Original Articles

Goals: To evaluate the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) and its risk factors.

Background: FD is a common disorder, but its negative influences greatly affect the quality of life. The predictive factors of FD are still ambiguous.

Study: A total of 3399 participants underwent screening gastroscopy at one of 7 nationwide health care centers in Korea and who completed a questionnaire. Atrophic gastritis was defined by gastroscopy. Serologic Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibody was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Of the 3399 participants who did not have organic diseases, 694 (20.4%) had dyspeptic symptoms such as epigastric pain/soreness or postprandial discomfort. Among the 694 participants, atrophic gastritis and positive H. pylori serology were found in 282 (40.6%) and 422 (60.8%), respectively; these proportions were not different from the remaining asymptomatic subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that having relatives with gastric cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.81], education below college (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.64), and high-salt diet (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.68) were associated with FD symptoms.

Conclusions: FD symptoms were frequently found in the health check-up subjects. Relatives of gastric cancer, education below college, and high-salt diet were risk factors of FD, suggesting that FD is a multifactorial disease.

*Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju

Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon

§Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan

Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan

Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan

#Department of Internal Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju

**School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

S.E.K. and H.K.P. contributed equally.

Supported by the Global Core Research Center (GCRC) Grant (2012-0001185) from the National Research Foundation (NRF), Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST), Republic of Korea.

The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.

Reprints: Nayoung Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707, South Korea (e-mail:

Received December 3, 2012

Accepted February 26, 2013

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins