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Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Consider the Population

Mittal, Sahil MD, MS*,†; El-Serag, Hashem B. MD, MPH*,†

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: July 2013 - Volume 47 - Issue - p S2–S6
doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182872f29

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence and has a very high fatality rate. Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C is the leading risk factor for HCC. Global epidemiology of HCC is determined by the prevalence of dominant viral hepatitis and the age it is acquired in the underlying population. Upcoming risk factors include obesity, diabetes, and related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This review discusses the latest trends of HCC globally and in the United States. It also provides an evidence-based commentary on the risk factors and lists some of the preventive measures to reduce the incidence of HCC.

*Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine

Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.

Reprints: Hashem B. El-Serag, MD, MPH, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2022 Holcombe Blvd. (152), Houston, TX 77030 (e-mail:

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins