Chemical colitis can occur as a result of accidental contamination of endoscopes or by intentional or accidental administration of enemas containing various chemicals. Most cases have occurred after accidental contamination of endoscopes with glutaraldehyde and/or hydrogen peroxide. There have been multiple case reports of chemical colitis resulting from unintentional administration of caustic chemicals. Intentional administration of corrosive enemas has been implicated in sexual practices, bowel cleansing, or in suicide attempts. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms including abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and/or diarrhea. As chemical colitis remains rare, the literature consists of scattered case reports and small series. Agents implicated in chemical colitis that are covered in this review include alcohol, radiocontrast agents, glutaraldehyde, formalin, ergotamine, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, ammonia, soap, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, herbal medicines, chloro-m-xylenol, and potassium permanganate. Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features are outlined for each agent in addition to the existing literature. Given the nonspecific presentation of many cases of chemically induced colitis, the diagnosis can be challenging if the pertinent history is not obtained. Most patients demonstrate the resolution of chemical-induced colitis after conservative or medical therapy. Depending on the depth and extent of injury, patients rarely require colectomy for ischemic colitis and/or peritonitis. Other postingestion complications include colonic strictures and rectovaginal fistulae. The benefits of medical therapy compared with conservative therapy are not known, as comparative clinical management trials have not been performed.