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On-site Observational Learning in Faculty Development

Impact of an International Program on Clinical Teaching in Medicine

Saiki, Takuya MD, MHPE, PhD; Imafuku, Rintaro MA, PhD; Pickering, Joyce MDCM, MSc, FACP, FRCPC; Suzuki, Yasuyuki MD, PhD; Steinert, Yvonne PhD

Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions: Spring 2019 - Volume 39 - Issue 2 - p 144–151
doi: 10.1097/CEH.0000000000000253
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Introduction: Local faculty development programs may not suffice for physicians to learn about global standards in clinical teaching. This report describes the evaluation of a 1-week international faculty development program in Canada, incorporating on-site observations of clinical teaching with guided reflection, for Japanese clinical teachers. Participants' perceptions of learning processes and outcomes are described.

Methods: Twenty-nine Japanese clinical teachers from 9 different teaching hospitals located in the Gifu province participated in this program from 2014 to 2017. The program evaluation consisted of end-of-program reflection reports and semistructured interviews conducted 3 months after the visit, which were thematically analyzed.

Results: Three themes related to learning processes emerged: the benefits of observing clinical teaching in a familiar specialty but unfamiliar context; the value of reflection in linking previous experiences with observations; and the role of group interaction and verbalization in creating a sense of community. Three additional themes related to learning outcomes emerged: enhanced knowledge about teaching, with a renewed emphasis on the value of learner respect and trust; increased confidence in teaching competence; and a sense of frustration related to difficulty in changing the status quo.

Discussion: An international faculty development program incorporating on-site observational learning in hospital settings with guided reflections can be effective in learning about clinical teaching; follow-up activities in the home country are also recommended. The key elements of this program, including international experiences, on-site observational learning, and guided reflections, should be considered more frequently in faculty development programs in medicine.

Dr. Saiki: Associate professor, Medical Education Development Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. Dr. Imafuku: Assistant professor, Medical Education Development Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. Dr. Pickering: Associate professor, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Associate professor, Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Dr. Suzuki: Professor, Medical Education Development Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. Dr. Steinert: Director, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Professor, Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Correspondence: Takuya Saiki, MD, MHPE, PhD, Medical Education Development Center, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Japan 501-1194; e-mail: saikitak@gifu-u.ac.jp.

Supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (Number JP17H04094) and the Gifu Doctor Training Consortium, Japan.

Disclosures: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Received October 26, 2018

Accepted March 27, 2019

© 2019 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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