The aims of the study were to explore the feasibility of generating a monoexponential model (MEM), stretched-exponential model (SEM) based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) by applying the same set of reduced b values and to compare their effectiveness in distinguishing prostate cancer from stromal hyperplasia (SH) in the transition zone (TZ) area.
An analysis of 75 patients who underwent preoperative DWI (b values of 0, 700, 1400, 2000 s/mm2) was performed. All lesions were localized on magnetic resonance images according to whole-mount histopathological correlations. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (α), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), mean diffusivity (MD), and mean kurtosis (MK) values were calculated and compared between the TZ cancer and SH groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were carried out for all parameters.
Compared with the SH group, the ADC, DDC, α, and MD values of the TZ cancer group were significantly reduced, while the MK value was significantly increased (all P < 0.05). The AUCs of the ADC, DDC, α, MD, and MK were 0.828, 0.801, 0.813, 0.822, and 0.882, respectively. The AUC of MK was significantly higher than that of the other parameters (all P < 0.05).
When using the reduced b-value set, all parameters from MEM, SEM, based DWI, and DKI can effectively distinguish TZ cancer from SH. Among them, DKI demonstrated potential clinical superiority over the others in TZ cancer diagnosis.