The aim of the study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of radiomics on iodine maps from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in distinguishing lung cancer from benign pulmonary nodules.
This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was waived. A total of 109 patients with 55 malignant nodules and 62 benign nodules underwent contrast-enhanced DECT. Eight iodine uptake parameters on iodine maps generated by DECT were calculated and established a predictive model. Eighty-seven radiomics features of entire tumor were extracted from iodine maps and established a radiomics model. The iodine uptake model and radiomics model were independently built based on the highly reproducible features using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. The diagnostic accuracy of 2 models were assessed using receiver operating curve analysis. For external validation, 47 patients (25 benign and 22 malignant) from another hospital were assigned to testing data set.
All iodine uptake features showed significant association with malignancy (P < 0.01) and 2 selected features (mean value of virtual noncontrast images and mean value of vital part on contrast-enhanced image) constituted the iodine model. The radiomics model comprised 2 features (original shape sphericity and original glszm small area high gray level emphasis), which showed good discrimination both in the training cohort (area under the curve, 0.957) and validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.800). Radiomics model showed superior performance than iodine uptake model (accuracy, 89.7% vs 80.6%).
Radiomics model extracted from iodine maps provided a robust diagnostic tool for discriminating pulmonary malignant nodules and had high potential in clinical application.