The aim of this study was to explore the clinical utility of spinal magnetic resonance imaging–based radiomics to predict treatment response (TR) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
A total of 123 MM patients (85 in the training cohort and 38 in the test cohort) with complete response (CR) (n = 40) or non-CR (n = 83) were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Key feature selection and data dimension reduction were performed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. A nomogram was built by combining radiomic signatures and independent clinical risk factors. The prediction performance of the nomogram was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration curves, and decision curve analysis. Treatment response was assessed by determining the serum and urinary levels of M-proteins, serum-free light chain ratio, and the percentage of bone marrow plasma cells.
Thirteen features were selected to build a radiomic signature. The International Staging System (ISS) stage was selected as an independent clinical factor. The radiomic signature and nomogram showed better calibration and higher discriminatory capacity (AUC of 0.929 and 0.917 for the radiomics and nomogram in the training cohort, respectively, and 0.862 and 0.874 for the radiomics and nomogram in the test cohort, respectively) than the clinical model (AUC of 0.661 and 0.674 in the training and test cohort, respectively). Decision curve analysis confirmed the clinical utility of the radiomics model.
Nomograms incorporating a magnetic resonance imaging–based radiomic signature and ISS stage help predict the response to chemotherapy for MM and can be useful in clinical decision-making.