The aim of this study was to evaluate various radiomics-based machine learning classification models using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps for differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
Fifty-two glioma patients, including 18 LGGs (grade II) and 34 HGGs (grade III/IV), were examined using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner. The ADC and CBF maps were obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. A total of 91 radiomic features were extracted from each of the tumor volume on the ADC and CBF maps. We constructed 4 types of machine learning classifiers based on (1) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regularized logistic regression (LASSO-LR), (2) random forest (RF), (3) support vector machine (SVM) with the radial basis function kernel (SVM-RBF), and (4) SVM with the linear kernel (SVM-L). A training set with 36 gliomas (70%) was used to select the important radiomic features and train each model using 5-fold cross-validation. The remaining 16 gliomas (30%) were used as a test set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the model performance.
A radiomic feature, ADC first-order-based skewness, was selected as an important variable in all classification models. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of the LASSO-LR, RF, SVM-RBF, and SVM-L models for the training set were 0.965, 1.000, 0.979, and 0.969, respectively. For the test set, the areas under the curve of the LASSO-LR, RF, SVM-RBF, and SVM-L models were 0.883, 0.917, 0.717, and 0.917, respectively. All classification models showed sufficient diagnostic performance on the test set.
Radiomics-based machine learning classifiers using the quantitative ADC and CBF maps are useful for differentiating HGGs from LGGs.