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Organ-Based Computed Tomographic (CT) Radiation Dose Reduction to the Lenses: Impact on Image Quality for CT of the Head

Reimann, Anja Judith MD; Davison, Chris MD; Bjarnason, Thor PhD; Yogesh, Thakur PhD; Kryzmyk, Karl MBA; Mayo, John; Nicolaou, Savvas

Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography: May/June 2012 - Volume 36 - Issue 3 - p 334–338
doi: 10.1097/RCT.0b013e318251ec61
Dose Reduction Studies

Purpose Recently, a new specific organ dose adaption and reduction protocol, or SODAR tool (X-CARE, Siemens Healthcare), which reduces dose to the anterior aspect of the body of patients, was installed on our computed tomographic scanner. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate image quality and dose distribution in the acquired data with the new protocol.

Materials and Methods Sixteen consecutive patients were scanned with the new SODAR head protocol. The findings were compared with 16 matched patients who were imaged with the standard computed tomographic head trauma protocol. Image quality was assessed qualitatively using a scale of 1 to 4 (1, excellent; 2, good; 3, fair; 4, nondiagnostic). Additionally, 1-cm2 regions of interest were placed in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellar hemispheres, and the brain stem at the level of the pons for a quantitative analysis. The standard deviation of each measurement was recorded as an indicator for image noise. Dose measurement trials were performed using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters on head phantoms and then on patients.

Results Subjective image quality ranged between 1 and 3; no scan areas were considered nondiagnostic. Overall image quality of the posterior fossa averaged at 1.656 was slightly reduced compared to the cerebral hemispheres (mean, 1.141). The mean standard protocol brain stem image quality was 1.604, with only minimal deterioration to 1.708 in the SODAR group.

No significant difference in image noise could be found between the SODAR group with a mean noise of 4.515 and standard images with a mean of 4.721 (P > 0.05).

The dose to the anterior aspect of the patient was lowered to 3.2 mGy compared to 4.5 mGy on the lateral aspect of the scan (P > 0.05). To compensate for the photon loss in the posterior aspect, the dose has to be slightly increased to a mean of 6 mGy, but overall, a significant dose reduction with stable image quality could be achieved by reducing the dose length product from 1489 to 1347 mGy·cm using SODAR (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion Using the SODAR protocol resulted not only in an impressive 46% to 59% frontal dose reduction but also in the overall dose reduction. This dose reduction was obtained without sacrificing image quality, providing diagnostic images of the brain while protecting radiosensitive structures like the eye lenses in trauma brain imaging. Future applications will be reducing dose to other radiosensitive structures such as the thyroid gland and breast tissue from potentially harmful low-energy radiation without compromising image quality.

From the *Diagnostic Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; †University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; ‡Diagnostic Imaging, Interior Health, Kelowna, BC, Canada; and §CT Research and Collaborations, Siemens Medical Solutions, Los Angeles, CA.

Received for publication November 4, 2011; accepted February 23, 2012.

Reprints: Anja Judith Reimann, MD, Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Ground Floor, Jim Pattison Pavilion South, 899 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada (e-mail:

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.