Thoracic Imaging: Literature ReviewThoracic Involvement of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical, Pathologic, and Radiologic FindingsKim, Jeung Sook; Lee, Kyung Soo; Koh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Su Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Han, JounghoAuthor Information From the Department of Radiology, Pochon CHA University, Pundang CHA General Hospital, Kyonggi-Do, Korea (J. S. Kim), and Departments of Radiology (K. S. Lee and S. Y. Kim) and Medicine and Diagnostic Pathology (J. Han) and Divisions of Rheumatology (E.-M. Koh) and Pulmonology (M. P. Chung), Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. K. S. Lee at Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710, Korea. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography: January-February 2000 - Volume 24 - Issue 1 - p 9-18 Buy Abstract Abstract: Thoracic involvement occurs more frequently in systemic lupus erythematosus than in any other connective tissue diseases, and more than half of patients with the disease suffer from the involvement. Primary intrathoracic manifestations include pleural disease (effusions and/or thickening), acute lupus pneumonitis, subacute interstitial lung disease including bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, chronic interstitial lung disease of usual interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary vascular disease, small airway disease of bronchiolitis obliterans, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Secondary intrathoracic manifestations include atelectasis due to diaphragmatic dysfunction, opportunistic pneumonia, drug and oxygen toxicity, aspiration, and pleuropulmonary consequences of cardiac and renal failure. © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.