In paradoxical low-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (PLFLG AS) patients, stroke volume index (SVI) is reduced despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Although reduced SVI is already known as a poor prognostic predictor, the outcomes of PLFLG AS patients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have not been clearly defined. We retrospectively investigated the post-TAVR outcomes of PLFLG AS patients in comparison with normal-flow high-gradient aortic stenosis (NFHG AS) patients.
The current observational study included 245 patients with NFHG AS (mean transaortic pressure gradient ≥40 mmHg and LVEF ≥ 50%) and 48 patients with PLFLG AS (mean transaortic pressure gradient <40 mmHg, LVEF ≥ 50% and SVI < 35 ml/m2). The endpoints were all-cause mortality, hospitalization for valve-related symptoms or worsening congestive heart failure and New York Heart Association functional class III or IV.
PLFLG AS patients had a significantly higher proportion with a history of atrial fibrillation/flutter as compared with NFHG AS patients. All-cause mortality of PLFLG AS patients was worse than that of NFHG AS patients (P = 0.047). Hospitalization for valve-related symptoms or worsening congestive heart failure was more frequent in PLFLG AS patients than in NFHG AS patients (P = 0.041). New York Heart Association functional class III–IV after TAVR was more frequently observed in PLFLG AS patients (P = 0.019).
The outcomes of PLFLG AS patients were worse than those of NFHG AS patients in this study. Preexisting atrial fibrillation/flutter was frequent in PLFLG AS patients, and may affect their post-TAVR outcomes. Therefore, closer post-TAVR follow-up should be considered for these patients.