The prevalence and prognostic implications of acute cardiac injury (ACI), as a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remain unclear.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between ACI and mortality risk in COVID-19 patients.
Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in abstracting data and assessing validity. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science to locate all articles published up to 10 April 2020 reporting data of COVID-19 survivors and nonsurvivors developing ACI as a complication of the infection. Quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle–Ottawa quality assessment scale. Data were pooled using the Mantel–Haenszel random effects models with odds ratio as the effect measure with the related 95% confidence interval. Statistical heterogeneity between groups was measured using the Higgins I2 statistic.
Eight studies, enrolling 1686 patients (mean age 59.5 years), met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data regarding the outcome of patients complicated with ACI were available for 1615 patients. Of these, 387 (23.9%) experienced ACIs as COVID-19 complications during the hospitalization. The incidence of ACI was significantly higher among non survivors when compared with survivors (61.6 vs. 6.7%, P < 0.0001). The pooled analysis confirmed a significantly increased risk of death in COVID-19 patients complicated with ACI during the disease (odds ratio: 21.6, 95% confidence interval: 8.6–54.4, P < 0.0001, I2 = 82%).
Development of ACI during COVID-19 significantly increases the risk of death during the infection.