ReviewsIs the risk of stroke in permanent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation really the same? Therein lies the dilemmaGenovesi-Ebert, Albertoa; Sorini-Dini, Carlottaa; Di Fusco, Stefania Angelab; Imperoli, Giuseppec; Colivicchi, FuriobAuthor Information aU.O.C Cardiologia, Spedali Riuniti Livorno, Livorno bUOC cardiologia Clinica e Riabilitativa, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Roma cU.O.C Medicina Interna, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Rome, Italy Correspondence to Alberto Genovesi-Ebert, MD, U.O.C Cardiologia, Spedali Riuniti Livorno, Viale Alfieri n. 36, 57100 Livorno, Italy E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 8 December, 2019 Revised 13 February, 2020 Accepted 29 February, 2020 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: August 2020 - Volume 21 - Issue 8 - p 540-546 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000977 Buy Metrics Abstract The article reviews the rate of embolic risk in permanent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation reported in the current literature. The data analyzed suggest that the embolic risk in the two forms of atrial fibrillation is different and therefore careful clinical judgment is needed to offer patients tailored anticoagulation treatments. © 2020 Italian Federation of Cardiology - I.F.C. All rights reserved.