ReviewsBridging the gap between hypertrabeculation phenotype, noncompaction phenotype and left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathyVergani, Vittoriaa; Lazzeroni, Davideb; Peretto, GiovannicAuthor Information aDepartment of Clinical Cardiology, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital and University bDepartment of Clinical Cardiology, IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi cDepartment of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrhythmology, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital and University, Milan, Italy Correspondence to Giovanni Peretto, MD, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy Tel: +39 02 2643 7484; fax: +39 02 2643 7326; e-mail: [email protected] Received 13 May, 2019 Revised 9 November, 2019 Accepted 23 November, 2019 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: March 2020 - Volume 21 - Issue 3 - p 192-199 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000924 Buy Metrics Abstract Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is an increasingly recognised cardiomyopathy characterised by excessive trabeculation and deep intertrabecular recesses in direct communication with the left ventricular cavity. In LVNC, hypertrabeculation has been associated with heart failure, ventricular arrhythmia, and systemic thromboembolism. However, hypertrabeculation alone is not sufficient to define a subject as at risk for such complications and thus should not be sufficient to diagnose LVNC. Despite several studies having investigated parameters to predict adverse cardiovascular events, physicians have no effective tools to differentiate between clinically silent hypertrabeculation and LVNC. The aim of this paper was to review literature on LVNC diagnostic criteria and to provide an easy and accessible diagnostic algorithm to distinguish between hypertrabeculation phenotype, non-compaction phenotype and LVNC cardiomyopathy. © 2019 Italian Federation of Cardiology - I.F.C. All rights reserved.