Recent reports evidenced gender differences in the knowledge, perception and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Despite the number of high-quality trials that attempted to establish the efficacy of different preventive interventions on CVDs, in the Italian scenario the differences by gender in awareness, knowledge and perception of CVD have not been addressed yet. So, the aims of this cross-sectional, observational and multicenter study will be to evaluate the gender differences in the awareness and perception of CVD risk, to assess the knowledge of CVD symptoms and preventive behaviors/barriers in men and women participating in this study, and to provide a national primary care approach for gender-oriented cardiovascular prevention strategies and therapy.
A self-administered questionnaire will be completed by 5000 consecutive Italian women and men aged 18–70 years. Moreover, a health questionnaire will be completed by the physicians.
The present study will be the largest to be conducted in Italy, and probably in the European countries, to comprehensively demonstrate the current level of the knowledge, awareness and perception of CVRFs and CVD in both men and women.
The present project could shed new light on the knowledge, awareness and perception of CVRFs and CVDs. If substantial differences will be detected by gender, the findings of this study may contribute to ultimately provide a new gender-oriented primary care approach inside the Italian healthcare system related to cardiovascular prevention and therapy strategies.
aCardiovascular and Gynaecological Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana, Pisa
bDepartment of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari
cMagnetic Resonance Imaging Unit, Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana
dEpidemiology and Health Research Lab, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa
eCardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Therapeutic Science and Strategy Unit, IQVIA, Milano
fDepartment of Translational Medicine, Università Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy
Correspondence to Dr Silvia Maffei, MD, Cardiovascular and Gynaecological Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana, Via G. Moruzzi 1 - 56124, Pisa, Italy Tel/fax: +(0039) 050 315-2216/2166; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 27 June, 2018
Revised 20 December, 2018
Accepted 20 December, 2018