Chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED), especially when associated with pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), is a fearsome and under-diagnosed but potentially curable complication of pulmonary embolism, thanks to recent therapeutic options. Aspecific symptoms and signs make its diagnosis challenging, requiring clinicians to be ready to suspect its presence in patients with dyspnea of unknown origin or persistent symptoms after acute pulmonary embolism. The aim of this review is to provide an update to the general practitioner or the specialist physician on the state of the art regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of chronic thromboembolic syndromes.
aCardiothoracic Department, Division of Cardiology and Postgraduate School in Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
bPulmonary Hypertension National Service, Hammersmith Hospital Imperial College NHS Trust, London, UK
Correspondence to Stefano Albani, Cardiothoracic Department, Division of Cardiology and Postgraduate School in Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy, Via Pietro Valdoni 7, 34149 Trieste, Italy Tel: +0039 040 3994125; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 1 October, 2018
Revised 5 January, 2019
Accepted 9 January, 2019