ReviewsCardiac rehabilitation in women: state of the art and strategies to overcome the current barriersGalati, Alfonso; Piccoli, Mara; Tourkmani, Nidal; Sgorbini, Luca; Rossetti, Antonella; Cugusi, Lucia; Bellotto, Fabio; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Abreu, Ana; D’Ascenzi, Flavio Author Information aCardiac Rehabilitation Villa Betania-Giomi Hospital bCardiology Department, Grassi Hospital, Rome cABL, Swiss Prestige International Medical Centre-Guangzhou, China dDepartment of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Italy eHospital Santa Marta, CHLC, Cardiology Service, Rua Santa Marta, Lisboa, Portugal fDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies, Division of Cardiology, University of Siena gUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Chianciano T.me, Siena, Italy Correspondence to Flavio D’Ascenzi, MD, PhD, FESC, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Division of Cardiology, University of Siena, Viale M. Bracci, 16 53100 Siena, Italy Tel: +39 0577585377; fax: +39 0577585377; e-mail: [email protected] Received 17 June, 2018 Accepted 2 October, 2018 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 19(12):p 689-697, December 2018. | DOI: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000730 Buy Metrics Abstract Cardiac rehabilitation is able to reduce cardiovascular mortality, and improves functional capacity and quality of life. However, cardiac rehabilitation participation rates are low and the current evidence has demonstrated sex differences for the access to cardiac rehabilitation programs. In this review, we discuss the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation in women with a specific focus on ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and peripheral artery disease. We also analyse the current limitations to cardiac rehabilitation for women in terms of accessibility and indications, reporting general, sex-specific, and healthcare-related barriers. Finally, we discuss the potential solutions and areas of development for the coming years. © 2018 Italian Federation of Cardiology - I.F.C. All rights reserved.