The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis(CAS) in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG).
Patients from the multicenter, prospective E-CABG registry without history of stroke or transient ischemic attack and screened by duplex ultrasound for CAS before isolated CABG were included in this analysis.
Among 2813 patients screened by duplex ultrasound for asymptomatic CAS, 11.1% had a CAS of 50–59%, 6.0% of 60–69%, 3.1% of 70–79%, 1.4% of 80–89%, 0.5% of 90–99%, and 1.1% had carotid occlusion. Postoperative stroke occurred in 25 patients (0.9%). Lesions were bilateral in five patients (25%) and ipsilateral to a CAS ≥50% in six patients (30%). In univariate analysis, the severity of CAS was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, a CAS of 90–99%(OR 12.03, 95%CI 1.34–108.23) and the presence of an occluded internal carotid artery (OR 8.783, 95%CI 1.820–42.40) were independent predictors of stroke along with urgency of the procedure, severe-massive bleeding according to the E-CABG classification and the presence of a porcelain ascending aorta.
Among patients with asymptomatic CAS, the risk of stroke is significant only in patients with a stenosis ≥90%. Since this condition has a low prevalence and when left untreated is associated with a relatively low rate of stroke, preoperative screening of asymptomatic CAS before CABG may not be justified. Instead, avoiding manipulation of diseased ascending aorta and prevention of excessive bleeding may be more effective measures to prevent stroke after CABG.
1Division of Cardiac Surgery, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University of Genoa Genova, IT
2Cardiovascular Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany & Città di Lecce Hospital GVM Care&Research Lecce, IT
3Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Parma Parma, IT
4Department of Cardiothoracic and Respiratory Sciences, University of Campania Napoli, IT
5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, SE
6Cardiovascular Center, Paracelsus Medical University Nuremberg, DE
7Department of Thoracic and Cardio-Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Jean Minjoz Besançon, FR
8Hamburg University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany
9Division of Cardiac Surgery, Ospedali Riuniti Trieste, IT
10Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Verona University Hospital Verona, IT
11Centro Clinico-Diagnostico “G.B. Morgagni”, Centro Cuore Pedara, IT
12Department of Cardiac Surgery, St. Anna Hospital Catanzaro, IT
13Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Cardiac Surgery Unit, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital Roma, IT
14Department of Cardiac Surgery, Centro Cardiologico - Fondazione Monzino IRCCS, University of Milan Milano, IT
15Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Pontchaillou University Hospital Rennes, FR
16National Center of Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità Roma, IT
17Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu Oulu, FI
18Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Clinical Sciences Wing, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, UK & Division of Cardiac Surgery, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University of Genoa Genova, IT
19Heart Center, Turku University Hospital, and Department of Surgery, University of Turku Turku, FI
20Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Robert Debré University Hospital Reims, FR
21Heart Center, Turku University Hospital, and Department of Surgery, University of Turku & Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu Oulu, FI