ReviewsTakotsubo cardiomyopathy: queries of the current eraCusmà-Piccione, Maurizioa,∗; Longobardo, Lucaa,∗; Oteri, Alessandraa; Manganaro, Robertaa; Di Bella, Gianlucaa; Carerj, Scipionea; Khandheria, Bijoy K.b,c; Zito, ConcettaaAuthor Information aSection of Cardiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria ‘Policlinico G. Martino’ and Universita’ degli Studi di Messina, Messina, Italy bAurora Cardiovascular Services, Aurora Sinai/Aurora St. Luke's Medical Centers, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health cMarcus Family Fund for Echocardiography (ECHO) Research and Education, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA Correspondence to Bijoy K. Khandheria, MD, Aurora Cardiovascular Services, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, 2801 W Kinnickinnic River Parkway, Ste. 840, Milwaukee, WI 53215, USA Tel: +1 414 649 3909; fax: +1 414 649 3578; e-mail: email@example.com Received 11 April, 2018 Accepted 31 July, 2018 Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (www.jcardiovascularmedicine.com). Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: November 2018 - Volume 19 - Issue 11 - p 624-632 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000707 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS), also known as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is an acute, usually reversible heart failure syndrome that most often affects postmenopausal women experiencing an emotionally stressful event. It is characterized by sudden left ventricular dysfunction and wall motion abnormalities involving the apical and mid segments. TTS has been increasingly recognized in recent years, and more and more information about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these patients has been reported. However, much is still unknown. TTS has a wide variety of clinical subtypes and has been described in several clinical contexts. Moreover, TTS simulates ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and acute myocarditis, and it can be difficult to obtain a certain diagnosis. As a result, clinical decisions are challenging, and many patients currently receive an inappropriate management strategy. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the evidence about this disease reported in the literature, with particular focus on the pathophysiological processes, the diagnostic elements that can help the clinician differentiate it from other diseases, and the best management of these patients. © 2018 Italian Federation of Cardiology - I.F.C. All rights reserved.