Cardiovascular aging: the unveiled enigma from bench to bedsideCannata’, Antonioa,b; Merlo, Marcoa; Artico, Jessicaa; Gentile, Pieroa; Camparini, Lucab; Cristallini, Jacopoa; Porcari, Aldostefanoa; Loffredo, Francescoa,b; Sinagra, GianfrancoaJournal of Cardiovascular Medicine: October 2018 - Volume 19 - Issue 10 - p 517–526 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000694 Reviews Abstract Author Information The rapid increase in the median age of the world's population requires particular attention towards older and more fragile people. Cardiovascular risk factors, time and comorbidities play a vicious role in the development of heart failure, both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction, in the elderly. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological processes observed with aging is pivotal to target those patients and their therapeutic needs properly. This review aims to investigate and to dissect the main pathways leading to the aging cardiomyopathy, helping to understand the relationship from bench to bedside of the clinical phenotype. aCardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste and University of Trieste bInternational Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy Correspondence to Francesco Loffredo, MD, PhD, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste and University of Trieste, Via Pietro Valdoni 7, 34100 Trieste, Italy E-mail: Francesco.email@example.com Received 22 April, 2018 Revised 28 May, 2018 Accepted 24 June, 2018 © 2018 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.