ReviewsArterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation standard and advanced echocardiography from diagnosis to prognosticationCameli, Matteoa; Mandoli, Giulia E.a; Ambrosio, Giuseppec; Cerbai, Elisabettad; Coiro, Stefanoc; Emdin, Michelee,f; Marcucci, Rossellag; Morrone, Doralisab; Palazzuoli, Albertoh; Savino, Kettyc; Padeletti, Luigii,j; Mondillo, Sergioa; Pedrinelli, Robertob on behalf of Società Italiana di Cardiologia, Sezione Regionale Tosco-UmbraAuthor Information aDepartment of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena bDipartimento di Patologia Chirurgica, Medica, Molecolare e dell’Area Critica, Università di Pisa, Pisa cDivision of Cardiology, University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia dDepartment of NeuroFarBa, C.I.M.M.B.A., University of Florence, Florence eScuola Superiore Sant’Anna fFondazione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa gDepartment of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence hDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, Siena iInstitute of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence jIRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy Correspondence to Dr Matteo Cameli, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Policlinico ‘Le Scotte’, Viale Bracci 1, 53100 Siena, Italy Tel: +39 0577585377; fax: +39 0577585377; e-mail: [email protected] Received 28 May, 2017 Revised 7 November, 2017 Accepted 21 November, 2017 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: February 2018 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 51-61 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000607 Buy Metrics Abstract Structural changes in left and right cardiac chambers that occur in arterial hypertension (AH) may lead to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Considering that AH is currently the most common cardiovascular disease in the general population, it represents a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation development. This review explores the complex relationship between atrial fibrillation and AH, starting from its pathophysiological basis. It focuses on the role of echocardiography in the management of hypertensive and atrial fibrillation patients, with emphasis on what should be evaluated about left ventricular remodeling, diastolic and systolic function, left atrial (LA) size and function and right ventricular deformation in patients with AH. © 2018 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.