Some barriers seem to exist in changing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) manufacturer at the time of device replacement. We sought to understand the obstacles to changing ICD manufacturer within the cohort of patients enrolled in the Detect Long-term Complications After ICD Replacement Registry.
We analyzed 784 consecutive ICD/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) device replacements within a 1.5-year time-frame in 36 Italian centers to evaluate potential factors associated with changing manufacturers and system-related complications.
Manufacturer change occurred in 191 patients (24%): 72/211 single-chamber ICDs (34%), 52/210 dual-chamber ICDs (25%) and 67/363 CRT-D (18%, P < 0.0001 vs. single-chamber). Replacement-only procedures were associated with a lower rate of manufacturer change than upgrading procedures (23 vs. 32%, P = 0.02). In the single-chamber/dual-chamber cohort, the only variables associated with manufacturer change were the number of available manufacturers (OR = 1.9; P < 0.0001) and an upgrade procedure (OR = 1.7; P = 0.035), whereas the center volume was associated with maintenance of the same manufacturer (OR = 0.5; P = 0.0172). In the CRT-D group, the number of available manufacturers [OR = 2.9; P < 0.0001, service life below the median value (OR = 2.5; P = 0.0026)], and physiological design (OR = 8.4; P = 0.0048) were associated with manufacturer change. At 6-month follow-up, 17 patients (2.2%) experienced a system complication that was lead-related in all cases; upgrade procedure was the only predictor (hazard ratio = 6.7) of complications.
At the time of ICD replacement, a manufacturer change occurred in 24% of patients and it was less likely in CRT-D devices, which are equipped with more specific technology and less frequently require the addition of features. System-related complications are strongly associated to upgrade procedures rather than to manufacturer change.