Patients with diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) present an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. An Italian Consensus Document indicated ‘three specific must’ to obtain in this subgroup of patients: optimal oral antiplatelet therapy, early invasive approach and a tailored strategy of revascularization for unstable angina/non-ST-elevation-myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI); furthermore, glycemia at admission should be managed with dedicated protocols.
To investigate if previous recommendations are followed, the present multicenter prospective observational registry was carried out in Lombardia during a 9-week period between March and May 2015.
Methods and results
A total of 559 consecutive ACS patients (mean age 68.7 ± 11.3 years, 35% ≥75 years, 50% STEMI), with ‘known DM’ (56%) or ‘hyperglycemia’, this last defined as blood glucose value ≥ 126 mg/dl at admission, were included in the registry at 29 hospitals with an on-site 24/7 catheterization laboratory. Patients with known diabetes mellitus received clopidogrel in 51% of the cases, whereas most patients with hyperglycemia (72%) received a new P2Y12 inhibitor: according to clinical presentation in case STEMI prasugrel/ticagrelor were more prescribed than clopidogrel (70 vs. 30%, P < 0.001); on the contrary, no significant difference was found in case of UA/NSTEMI (48 vs. 52%, P = 0.57).
Overall, 96% of the patients underwent coronary angiography and 85% received a myocardial revascularization (with percutaneous coronary intervention in 92% of cases) that was however performed in fewer patients with known diabetes mellitus compared with hyperglycemia (79 vs. 90%, P = 0.001).
Among UA/NSTEMI, 85% of patients received an initial invasive approach, less than 72 h in 80% of the cases (51% <24 h); no difference was reported comparing known diabetes mellitus to hyperglycemia. Despite similar SYNTAX score, patients with known diabetes mellitus had a higher rate of Heart Team discussion (29 vs. 12%, P = 0.03) and received a surgical revascularization in numerically more cases.
Most investigators (85%) followed a local protocol for glycemia management at admission, but insulin was used in fewer than half of the cases; diabetes consulting was performed in 25% of the patients and mainly in case of known diabetes mellitus.
Based on data of the present real world prospective registry, patients with ACS and known diabetes mellitus are treated with an early invasive approach in case of UA/NSTEMI and with a tailored revascularization strategy, but with clopidogrel in more cases; glycemia management is taken into account at admission.