The role of C2238/atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) minor allele, at the T2238C ANP gene variant, as a predisposing risk factor for acute cardiovascular events, has been previously reported. We aimed at evaluating, by a retrospective approach, the long-term impact of C2238/ANP-minor allele carrier status toward the risk of recurrent acute coronary syndromes (re-ACS) in an Italian cohort of ischemic heart disease patients.
A total of 379 patients (males = 80.5%; mean age = 62.5 ± 9.2 years) presenting with ACS were retrospectively analyzed. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 3.5 years (range 1–26 years). Occurrence of new episodes of unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and STE myocardial infarction over the years was recorded and compared between subjects not carrying and carrying C2238/ANP-minor allele.
At univariate analysis, C2238/ANP-minor allele carrier status and treatment with beta-blocker, aspirin and statin were associated with risk of re-ACS. Multivariate analysis confirmed that hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.0001) and C2238/ANP-minor allele carrier status (P < 0.05) were both significantly and independently associated with increased risk of re-ACS. Both treatments with beta-blocker and with statin were significantly associated with reduced risk of re-ACS (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Age above 55 years was associated with recurrence of ACS in C2238/ANP-minor allele carriers (hazard ratio 1.427, 95% confidence interval 1.066–1.911, P = 0.017). Kaplan–Meier curves confirmed highest risk of new events occurrence in C2238/ANP-minor allele carriers (P = 0.035).
The present results demonstrate that C2238/ANP-minor allele carrier status is an independent risk factor for ACS recurrence in an Italian cohort of ischemic heart disease patients over the long term, and they support the role of C2238/ANP-minor allele as a negative prognostic factor in coronary artery disease patients.