Although preserved ejection fraction is found in more than 50% of patients with heart failure, its acceptance as a specific clinical entity is limited. More understanding of the physiopathology, early diagnosis and medical management is needed. With no existing systematic information in the literature, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the new imaging techniques for diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, particularly in the early stages of the disease, underlying the pivotal role of new technologies such as two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography and vascular stiffness.
aClinical and Experimental Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
bAurora Cardiovascular Services, Aurora Sinai/Aurora St. Luke's Medical Centers, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Correspondence to Bijoy K. Khandheria, MD, Aurora Cardiovascular Services, 2801 W. Kinnickinnic River Parkway, #840, Milwaukee, WI 53215, USA Tel: +1 414 649 3909; fax: +1 414 649 3551; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 9 October, 2013
Revised 21 July, 2014
Accepted 21 July, 2014