ReviewsAn update on hypertensive emergencies and urgenciesMuiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Amadoro, Valentina; di Somma, Salvatore; Perlini, Stefano; Semplicini, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Saba, Pier Sergio; Cameli, Matteo; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Maiello, Maria; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Novo, Salvatore; Palmiero, Pasquale; Scicchitano, Pietro; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Pedrinelli, Roberto the Working Group on Hypertension, Prevention, Rehabilitation of the Italian Society of Cardiology, the Societa’ Italiana dell’Ipertensione Arteriosa (SIIA)Author Information aDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Sciences University of Brescia, 25100 Spedali Civili, Brescia bDepartment of Medical-Surgery Sciences and Translational Medicine, Emergency Department, University La Sapienza, Sant’Andrea Hospital Rome, Rome cDepartment of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Lombardy dDepartment of Internal Medicine 1, USL12 Veneziana, Venice eDepartment of Medicine, University of Padua, Padova fDepartment of ScienzeMediche e Chirurgiche, S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna gDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicina Clinica e Molecolare, University Roma ‘Sapienza’ – Azienda Ospedaliera Sant’Andrea, and IRCCS Neuromed, Rome hDivision of Cardiology, AOU Sassari, Sassari iDepartment of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Tuscany jCardiovascular Disease Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Tranplantation, University of Bari, Bari kAS Department of Cardiology, Brindisi District, Brindisi lDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence mDepartment of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo nDipartimento di Patologia Chirurgica, Medica, Molecolare e dell’Area Critica, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy Correspondence to Maria Lorenza Muiesan, MD, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences University of Brescia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, 25100 Italy E-mail: [email protected] Received 23 May, 2014 Revised 3 September, 2014 Accepted 5 September, 2014 Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine: May 2015 - Volume 16 - Issue 5 - p 372-382 doi: 10.2459/JCM.0000000000000223 Buy Metrics Abstract Severe acute arterial hypertension is usually defined as ‘hypertensive crisis’, although ‘hypertensive emergencies’ or ‘hypertensive urgencies’, as suggested by the Joint National Committee and the European Society of Hypertension, have completely different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The prevalence and demographics of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies have changed over the last four decades, but hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Different scientific societies have repeatedly produced up-to-date guidelines; however, the treatment of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies is still inappropriate, with potential clinical implications. This review focuses on hypertensive emergencies and urgencies management and treatment, as suggested by recent data. © 2015 Italian Federation of Cardiology. All rights reserved.